We continued to foster a culture of continuous learning and improvement throughout our services by promoting research while investing in and facilitating staff development and education.

A focus of our strategic plan is investment in our staff to ensure quality and evidenced-based services. This is borne out through supporting
and encouraging education and research.

Published Research


Unmet Health Needs among Young Adults with Cerebral Palsy in Ireland: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Ryan JM, Walsh M, Owens M, Byrne M, Kroll T, Hensey O, Kerr C, Norris M, Walsh A, Lavelle G, Fortune J.

J Clin Med. 2022 Aug 18;11(16):4847. doi: 10.3390/jcm11164847.

PMID: 36013083 Free PMC article.


Pilates-based exercises for gait and balance in ambulant children with cerebral palsy: feasibility and clinical outcomes of a randomised controlled trial.

Coman C, Meldrum D, Kiernan D, Malone A.

Disabil Rehabil. 2022 Aug 23:1-12. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2022.2110617. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 35996891


Transition to adult services experienced by young people with cerebral palsy: A cross-sectional study.

Ryan JM, Walsh M, Owens M, Byrne M, Kroll T, Hensey O, Kerr C, Norris M, Walsh A, Lavelle G, Fortune J.

Dev Med Child Neurol. 2022 Jun 21. doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15317. Online ahead of print.

PMID: 35729753


Age related progression of clinical measures and gait in ambulant children and youth with bilateral cerebral palsy without a history of surgical intervention.

Daly C, McKeating H, Kiernan D.

Gait Posture. 2022 Jun;95:141-148. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2022.04.018. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

PMID: 35489226


Parental subjective assessment of gait limitations: Comparison with objective gait variables.

Marron A, Brady K, Kiernan D.

Gait Posture. 2022 Feb;92:218-222. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2021.11.039. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

PMID: 34871926


Multi-Organ Dysfunction in Cerebral Palsy.

Allen J, Zareen Z, Doyle S, Whitla L, Afzal Z, Stack M, Franklin O, Green A, James A, Leahy TR, Quinn S, Elnazir B, Russell J, Paran S, Kiely P, Roche EF, McDonnell C, Baker L, Hensey O, Gibson L, Kelly S, McDonald D, Molloy EJ.

Front Pediatr. 2021 Aug 9;9:668544. doi: 10.3389/fped.2021.668544. eCollection 2021.

PMID: 34434904 Free PMC article. Review.


Factors associated with increased terminal swing knee flexion in cerebral palsy.

Daly C.

Gait Posture. 2021 Sep;89:126-131. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2021.07.007. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

PMID: 34280883


Trends in Prevalence and Severity of Pre/Perinatal Cerebral Palsy Among Children Born Preterm From 2004 to 2010: A SCPE Collaboration Study.

Arnaud C, Ehlinger V, Delobel-Ayoub M, Klapouszczak D, Perra O, Hensey O, Neubauer D, Hollódy K, Virella D, Rackauskaite G, Greitane A, Himmelmann K, Ortibus E, Dakovic I, Andersen GL, Papavasiliou A, Sellier E, Platt MJ, Krägeloh-Mann I.

Front Neurol. 2021 May 20;12:624884. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2021.624884. eCollection 2021.

PMID: 34093391 Free PMC article.


The progression of BMI status over time in Irish ambulant children with cerebral palsy.

Brady K, Kiernan D, Marron A.

Ir J Med Sci. 2022 Apr;191(2):793-799. doi: 10.1007/s11845-021-02635-x. Epub 2021 May 14.

PMID: 33988804


The association between gait analysis measures associated with crouch gait, functional health status and daily activity levels in cerebral palsy.

O'Sullivan R, French HP, Van Rossom S, Jonkers I, Horgan F.

J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2021;14(2):227-235. doi: 10.3233/PRM-200676.

PMID: 33896854


Intrathecal baclofen pumps in the management of hypertonia in childhood: a UK and Ireland wide survey.

Lodh R, Amin S, Ammar A, Bellis L, Brink P, Calisto A, Crimmins D, Eunson P, Forsyth RJ, Goodden J, Kaminska M, Kehoe J, Kirkpatrick M, Kumar R, Leonard J, Lording A, Martin K, Miller R, Mordekar SR, Pettorini B, Smith M, Smith R, Sneade C, Whitney A, Vloeberghs M, Zaki H, Lumsden DE.

Arch Dis Child. 2021 Dec;106(12):1202-1206. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2020-321487. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

PMID: 33853760


The relationship of trunk kinematics and kinetics with lower limb pathology during gait in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

Kiernan D.

Gait Posture. 2021 May;86:33-37. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2021.02.032. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

PMID: 33677176


Lower limb biomechanics during gait in children with Achondroplasia.

Kiernan D.

J Biomech. 2021 Apr 15;119:110313. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110313. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

PMID: 33631664


Transition from child to adult health services for young people with cerebral palsy in Ireland: a mixed-methods study protocol.

Ryan JM, Fortune J, Walsh A, Norris M, Kerr C, Hensey O, Kroll T, Lavelle G, Owens M, Byrne M, Walsh M.

BMJ Open. 2020 Dec 22;10(12):e041425. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041425.

PMID: 33371036 Free PMC article.


Crouch gait or flexed-knee gait in cerebral palsy: Is there a difference? A systematic review.

O'Sullivan R, Marron A, Brady K.

Gait Posture. 2020 Oct;82:153-160. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.09.001. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

PMID: 32927222


Centre of pressure error with increasing gait velocity: The clinical impact on predicted inverse dynamics during gait in children with typical development.

Brady K, Kiernan D.

Gait Posture. 2020 Oct;82:96-99. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.08.127. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

PMID: 32911097


Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Irish ambulant children with cerebral palsy.

Kiernan D, Nikolopoulou C, Brady K.

Ir J Med Sci. 2021 Feb;190(1):225-231. doi: 10.1007/s11845-020-02294-4. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

PMID: 32632738


A prospective assessment of the progression of flexed-knee gait over repeated gait analyses in the absence of surgical intervention in bilateral cerebral palsy.

O'Sullivan R, French HP, Horgan F.

Gait Posture. 2020 Jun;79:133-138. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.04.021. Epub 2020 May 1.

PMID: 32408036


Tibial rotation outcomes following hamstring lengthening as part of single event multilevel surgery in children with cerebral palsy.

Marron A, O'Sullivan R, Kelly E, Kiernan D.

Gait Posture. 2020 Jun;79:126-132. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.04.026. Epub 2020 May 1.

PMID: 32408035


The Origin of the Cerebral Palsies: Contribution of Population-Based Neuroimaging Data.

Horber V, Sellier E, Horridge K, Rackauskaite G, Andersen GL, Virella D, Ortibus E, Dakovic I, Hensey O, Radsel A, Papavasiliou A, Cruz De la J, Arnaud C, Krägeloh-Mann I, Himmelmann K.

Neuropediatrics. 2020 Apr;51(2):113-119. doi: 10.1055/s-0039-3402007. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

PMID: 32120429


Reliability and measurement error of multi-segment trunk kinematics and kinetics during cerebral palsy gait.

Kiernan D, Simms CK.

Med Eng Phys. 2020 Jan;75:53-58. doi: 10.1016/j.medengphy.2019.11.002. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

PMID: 31732393


Dietitians’ Attitudes and Experiences of Blended Tube Feeding in Paediatrics.

O’Sullivan K, O’Sullivan M, Quigley S, Delahunt A, Sugrue S.

Ir Med J. 2019 Aug 1;112(7):967.

PMID: 31553148


The short-term effects of selective dorsal rhizotomy on gait compared to matched cerebral palsy control groups.

O'Sullivan R, Leonard J, Quinn A, Kiernan D.

PLoS One. 2019 Jul 30;14(7):e0220119. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0220119. eCollection 2019.

PMID: 31361785 Free PMC article.


The impact of centre of pressure error on predicted joint kinetics during cerebral palsy and typically developed gait: A clinical perspective.

Brady K, Kiernan D.

J Biomech. 2019 Jul 19;92:155-161. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.05.034. Epub 2019 May 24.

PMID: 31153622


Determining the most effective exercise for gluteal muscle activation in children with cerebral palsy using surface electromyography.

Daly C, Lafferty E, Joyce M, Malone A.

Gait Posture. 2019 May;70:270-274. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2019.03.013. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

PMID: 30913506 Clinical Trial.


Recurrent internal hip rotation gait in cerebral palsy: Case reports of two patients.

O'Sullivan R, Kiernan D.

HRB Open Res. 2019 Jan 29;1:28. doi: 10.12688/hrbopenres.12893.2. eCollection 2018.

PMID: 32596628 Free PMC article.


Idiopathic toe walking-A follow-up survey of gait analysis assessment.

O'Sullivan R, Munir K, Keating L.

Gait Posture. 2019 Feb;68:300-304. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.12.011. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

PMID: 30553151


The influence of crouch gait on sagittal trunk position and lower lumbar spinal loading in children with cerebral palsy.

Kiernan D, O'Sullivan R.

Gait Posture. 2019 Jan;67:65-70. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.09.003. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

PMID: 30290367


Kinematic differences between children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and healthy controls while performing activities of daily living.

Mahon J, Malone A, Kiernan D, Meldrum D.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2018 Nov;59:143-151. doi: 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2018.09.004. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

PMID: 30241094


The natural history of crouch gait in bilateral cerebral palsy: A systematic review.

O'Sullivan R, Horgan F, O'Brien T, French H.

Res Dev Disabil. 2018 Sep;80:84-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2018.06.013. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

PMID: 29960128


Utility of an abbreviated version of the stanford-binet intelligence scales (5th ed.) in estimating 'full scale' IQ for young children with autism spectrum disorder.

Twomey C, O'Connell H, Lillis M, Tarpey SL, O'Reilly G.

Autism Res. 2018 Mar;11(3):503-508. doi: 10.1002/aur.1911. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

PMID: 29282895


Pathological Movements of the Pelvis and Trunk During Gait in Children With Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional Study With 3-Dimensional Kinematics and Lower Lumbar Spinal Loading.

Kiernan D, O'Sullivan R, Malone A, O'Brien T, Simms CK.

Phys Ther. 2018 Feb 1;98(2):86-94. doi: 10.1093/ptj/pzx113.

PMID: 29106655


Reliability of 3D upper limb motion analysis in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

Mahon J, Malone A, Kiernan D, Meldrum D.

Physiol Meas. 2017 Mar;38(3):524-538. doi: 10.1088/1361-6579/aa5c13. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

PMID: 28140349


Three-dimensional lumbar segment movement characteristics during paediatric cerebral palsy gait.

Kiernan D, Malone A, O'Brien T, Simms CK.

Gait Posture. 2017 Mar;53:41-47. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.01.001. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

PMID: 28088678


Gait analysis and hip extensor function early post total hip replacement.

Colgan G, Walsh M, Bennett D, Rice J, O'Brien T.

J Orthop. 2016 Apr 6;13(3):171-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jor.2016.03.005. eCollection 2016 Sep.

PMID: 27408491 Free PMC article.


"Children with cerebral palsy experience greater levels of loading at the low back during gait compared to healthy controls".

Kiernan D, Malone A, O'Brien T, Simms CK.

Gait Posture. 2016 Jul;48:249-255. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.06.004. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

PMID: 27343832


Is adult gait less susceptible than paediatric gait to hip joint centre regression equation error?

Kiernan D, Hosking J, O'Brien T.

Gait Posture. 2016 Mar;45:133-6. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2016.01.023. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

PMID: 26979895


Effect of flip-flops on lower limb kinematics during walking: a cross-sectional study using three-dimensional gait analysis.

Sharpe T, Malone A, French H, Kiernan D, O'Brien T.

Ir J Med Sci. 2016 May;185(2):493-501. doi: 10.1007/s11845-016-1421-y. Epub 2016 Feb 22.

PMID: 26902474


Obstacle Crossing During Gait in Children With Cerebral Palsy: Cross-Sectional Study With Kinematic Analysis of Dynamic Balance and Trunk Control.

Malone A, Kiernan D, French H, Saunders V, O'Brien T.

Phys Ther. 2016 Aug;96(8):1208-15. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20150360. Epub 2016 Feb 18.

PMID: 26893506


Six-Minute Walk Test in Children With Spastic Cerebral Palsy and Children Developing Typically.

Fitzgerald D, Hickey C, Delahunt E, Walsh M, OʼBrien T.

Pediatr Phys Ther. 2016 Summer;28(2):192-9. doi: 10.1097/PEP.0000000000000224.

PMID: 26808959


Run kinematics with and without a jogging stroller.

O'Sullivan R, Kiernan D, Malone A.

Gait Posture. 2016 Jan;43:220-4. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.10.001. Epub 2015 Oct 21.

PMID: 26497800


Characterisation of the patellar tendon reflex in cerebral palsy children using motion analysis.

O'Sullivan R, Kiernan D, Walsh M, O'Brien T, Elhassan Y.

Ir J Med Sci. 2016 Nov;185(4):813-817. doi: 10.1007/s11845-015-1369-3. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

PMID: 26472096


Pseudoexon activation increases phenotype severity in a Becker muscular dystrophy patient.

Greer K, Mizzi K, Rice E, Kuster L, Barrero RA, Bellgard MI, Lynch BJ, Foley AR, O Rathallaigh E, Wilton SD, Fletcher S.

Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2015 Jul;3(4):320-6. doi: 10.1002/mgg3.144. Epub 2015 Apr 15.

PMID: 26247048 Free PMC article.


Associations of sedentary behaviour, physical activity, blood pressure and anthropometric measures with cardiorespiratory fitness in children with cerebral palsy.

Ryan JM, Hensey O, McLoughlin B, Lyons A, Gormley J.

PLoS One. 2015 Apr 2;10(4):e0123267. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123267. eCollection 2015.

PMID: 25835955 Free PMC article.


Do children with cerebral palsy change their gait when walking over uneven ground?

Malone A, Kiernan D, French H, Saunders V, O'Brien T.

Gait Posture. 2015 Feb;41(2):716-21. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.02.001. Epub 2015 Feb 14.

PMID: 25724259


A quantitative comparison of two kinematic protocols for lumbar segment motion during gait.

Kiernan D, Malone A, O'Brien T, Simms CK.

Gait Posture. 2015 Feb;41(2):699-705. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2015.01.027. Epub 2015 Feb 7.

PMID: 25701013


Normalisation method can affect gluteus medius electromyography results during weight bearing exercises in people with hip osteoarthritis (OA): a case control study.

French HP, Huang X, Cummiskey A, Meldrum D, Malone A.

Gait Posture. 2015 Feb;41(2):470-5. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.11.011. Epub 2014 Dec 27.

PMID: 25600175


The clinical impact of hip joint centre regression equation error on kinematics and kinetics during paediatric gait.

Kiernan D, Malone A, O'Brien T, Simms CK.

Gait Posture. 2015 Jan;41(1):175-9. doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.09.026. Epub 2014 Oct 8.

PMID: 25457478 Clinical Trial.


Validity of an activity monitor in young people with cerebral palsy gross motor function classification system level I.

O' Donoghue D, Kennedy N.

Physiol Meas. 2014 Nov;35(11):2307-18. doi: 10.1088/0967-3334/35/11/2307. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

PMID: 25340990


Dissecting the links between cerebellum and dystonia.

Malone A, Manto M, Hass C.

Cerebellum. 2014 Dec;13(6):666-8. doi: 10.1007/s12311-014-0601-4.

PMID: 25239288


Habitual physical activity and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with cerebral palsy.

Ryan JM, Crowley VE, Hensey O, Broderick JM, McGahey A, Gormley J.

Res Dev Disabil. 2014 Sep;35(9):1995-2002. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.03.051. Epub 2014 May 24.

PMID: 24864052


Waist circumference provides an indication of numerous cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with cerebral palsy.

Ryan JM, Crowley VE, Hensey O, McGahey A, Gormley J.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Aug;95(8):1540-6. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.03.029. Epub 2014 Apr 15.

PMID: 24742941


Reduced moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and increased sedentary behavior are associated with elevated blood pressure values in children with cerebral palsy.

Ryan JM, Hensey O, McLoughlin B, Lyons A, Gormley J.

Phys Ther. 2014 Aug;94(8):1144-53. doi: 10.2522/ptj.20130499. Epub 2014 Apr 3.

PMID: 24700137


Three-dimensional gait analysis outcomes at 1 year following decompressive surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

Malone A, Meldrum D, Bolger C.

Eur Spine J. 2015 Jan;24(1):48-56. doi: 10.1007/s00586-014-3267-1. Epub 2014 Mar 13.

PMID: 24622959


A 3-dimensional rigid cluster thorax model for kinematic measurements during gait.

Kiernan D, Malone A, O'Brien T, Simms CK.

J Biomech. 2014 Apr 11;47(6):1499-505. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.02.020. Epub 2014 Feb 20.

PMID: 24612715


The importance of submalleolar deformity in determining leg length discrepancy.

Ali A, Walsh M, O'Brien T, Dimitrov BD.

Surgeon. 2014 Aug;12(4):201-5. doi: 10.1016/j.surge.2013.12.003. Epub 2014 Jan 8.

PMID: 24411925


Bilateral sleeve fractures of the patella in a 12-year-old boy with hereditary spastic paraparesis and crouch gait.

Malone A, Kiernan D, O Brien T.

BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Dec 4;2013:bcr2013202217. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2013-202217.

PMID: 24306432 Free PMC article.


The influence of estimated body segment parameters on predicted joint kinetics during diplegic cerebral palsy gait.

Kiernan D, Walsh M, O'Sullivan R, O'Brien T, Simms CK.

J Biomech. 2014 Jan 3;47(1):284-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.10.024. Epub 2013 Oct 23.

PMID: 24200337


The difficulty identifying intoeing gait in cerebral palsy.

O'Sullivan R, Kiernan D, Walsh M, Brien TO.

Ir Med J. 2013 May;106(5):144-5.

PMID: 23914575


Electromyographic characteristics of gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

Malone A, Meldrum D, Gleeson J, Bolger C.

Eur Spine J. 2013 Nov;22(11):2538-44. doi: 10.1007/s00586-013-2928-9. Epub 2013 Aug 2.

PMID: 23907308 Free PMC article.


Bilateral knee extensor disruption in severe crouch gait.

Elhassan Y, Kiernan D, Lynch T, O'Brien T.

BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Jun 27;2013:bcr2013010337. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2013-010337.

PMID: 23814213 Free PMC article.


A greenstick fracture of the patella: a unique fracture in CP crouch gait.

Elhassan Y, Mahon J, Kiernan D, O Brien T.

BMJ Case Rep. 2013 May 22;2013:bcr2013009717. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2013-009717.

PMID: 23704454 Free PMC article.


Knee extensor disruption in mild diplegic cerebral palsy: a risk for adolescent athletes.

Elhassan Y, O'Sullivan R, Walsh M, O Brien T.

BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Feb 20;2013:bcr2012008120. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2012-008120.

PMID: 23429018 Free PMC article.


Psychometric evaluation of the functional walking test for children with cerebral palsy.

Quinn A, O'Regan M, Horgan F.

Disabil Rehabil. 2011;33(25-26):2397-403. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2011.573057. Epub 2011 Apr 20.

PMID: 21504407 Clinical Trial.